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Terry VanderWert

Training to Train – Building Aerobic Fitness for Senior Triathletes

by Terry VanderWert 0 Comments
Training to Train – Building Aerobic Fitness for Senior Triathletes

This post is the first in a series about training for the beginner and intermediate triathlete age 50 and over. This one focuses on creating aerobic fitness for senior triathletes.

The foundation for structured triathlon training is a solid base of aerobic fitness. Even elite athletes typically begin each new season with a ‘base phase’.

In Train To Tri: Your First Triathlon, the Base Phase is defined as “the period during a training cycle where basic endurance is the focus, normally in the beginning of the season.”

Look at training plans for triathlon or for the individual sports of a triathlon. In most of these, you will read about ‘base building’ or something similar.

But what does ‘building a base’ mean? And, how does one go about it? More specifically, how do senior triathletes develop this base level of aerobic fitness?

While there is plenty of discussion about the need to achieve a base level of fitness before beginning structured training, there is seldom detail on how this is done. The closest advice I had previously found was to train at ‘low to moderate intensity’ for one to two months at the beginning of the season.

I need something more specific. And, I need to know when I have completed the Base Phase.

Following is information about the plan I have started to use for the aerobic base building phase. I believe it answers these two needs.

Aerobic Fitness is the Foundation for High Performing Senior Triathletes

During the three decades of the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s, eastern European athletes dominated endurance sports by adopting training programs in which the training stresses were varied throughout the year.

In the 1960s, this concept was refined and formalized by Dr. Tudor Bompa of the Romanian Institute of Sports. His research, which led to him becoming known as the “father of periodization’, helped eastern European athletes dominate sports on the world stage.

This domination by the eastern Europeans ended when athletes across the rest of the world learned about and adopted periodization.

Periodization is based on the idea that training is most effective when it progresses from general to that specific to the athlete’s main sport. In the context of triathlon, this means starting with building a solid base of endurance before focusing on performance, that is, speed and distance, in swimming, biking, and running.

Why Senior Triathletes Need to First Develop an Aerobic Fitness Base

I understand. You are eager to get out and train hard. Besides, who wants to spend two months plodding along in the run. Isn’t ‘No pain, no gain’ our mantra?

I am constantly reminded that patience is not only a virtue but one of the triathlete’s best friends. Here’s why senior triathletes need to start by developing aerobic fitness.

Minimizes injury while building strength

Combined with strength, a base level of aerobic fitness for senior triathletes is our main antidote to injury.

The wisdom of the ‘No pain’ philosophy has come into serious question. I certainly no longer buy this. My impatience has nearly always led to injury or at least enough fatigue that training is not consistent.

This is supported by Coach Parry who provides the “Faster After 50” training program. In a video interview, Coach Parry gave the top five tips for starting to run after age 50.

Interestingly, his number 1 tip is to “walk before you run”. This approach has the combined benefit of (1) building aerobic fitness and (2) strengthening body parts such as tendons that are most subject to injury.

Building aerobic fitness and strength combine to gradually prepare the body to minimize, if not avoid, injury when eventually subjected to higher intensity training.

Results in more effective race specific training

Secondly, without a base level of aerobic fitness, we will not have the endurance needed to execute the high intensity workouts required to increase our performance. Without an aerobic base, we will never be a serious contender in a sprint triathlon, never mind a longer distance race.

As a result of inconsistent training due to injury and fatigue, my aerobic endurance had become sub-standard. Even though I usually ran 3 days per week, most of the time my heart rate was well above the aerobic zone.

That my aerobic fitness needed improvement was confirmed earlier this year when I started running with a Stryd power meter. My results, displayed in the Stryd Powercenter app, showed that my strength was well above average for my age. However, my fitness, fatigue resistance, and endurance were all below average. 

In short, I was able to run fast enough in hill repeats and short sprints, just not for very long.

I decided to take a step back and work on my aerobic fitness.

Developing Aerobic Fitness for Senior Triathletes

The base level of aerobic endurance is developed through an extended period of moderate level physical activity. This is activity that our bodies can eventually sustain for hours since it is fueled by fat, something of which we all have plenty.

But, how do you know what is ‘moderate’?

One approach is to limit one’s pace by breathing only through the nose. A second guide is to limit one’s running pace to that at which you are able to maintain a conversation.

A more objective approach is to use a heart rate monitor. Today, these are available as a chest strap connected to a smartphone or watch, a sensor built into a sports watch that measures heart rate at the wrist, and, more recently, as a sensor built into earbuds.

What is the heart rate at which you should be training to most effectively build base aerobic fitness?

Training with a heart rate monitor – the CDC method

There are different approaches to developing the aerobic endurance base using a heart rate monitor (HRM).

The United States Centers for Disease Control defines the target heart rate for moderate-intensity physical activity rate based on age. Following is the CDC calculation of heart rate range with an example for a 70-year-old person.

  1. Subtract your age from 220.
    • Example: For a person age 70, the maximum heart rate is 150 (220-70 = 150) beats per minute (bpm).
  2. Next, multiply the maximum heart rate by 64% and 76% to obtain the lower and upper limits of the heart rate range for moderate-intensity physical activity. In our example for the 70-year-old person, these limits are:
    • 64% value: 150 x 0.64 = 96 bpm
    • 76% value: 150 x 0.76 = 114 bpm

In summary, the CDC method shows that a person age 70 should maintain a heart rate between 96 and 114 bpm during a period of moderate-intensity physical activity.

Training with a heart rate monitor – the MAF method

An approach that is more specific to triathletes is the MAF (Maximum Aerobic Function) method developed by Dr. Phil Maffetone. Dr. Maffetone was the coach for six-time World Ironman Champion, Mark Allen, so I consider him credible.

The MAF method promotes building a healthy aerobic system based on managing three components: exercise, nutrition and stress.

Part of the Maffetone approach is MAF-180 for calculating the aerobic zone heart rate range, also based on age. However, the calculation is even simpler.

Applying this method, our active 70-year triathlete will train with a maximum heart rate of 180-70 = 110. The lower end of the training range is 10 bpm below the maximum.

So, using the MAF method, the heart rate range for our 70-year triathlete during the base building phase is 100 to 110 bpm.

Putting it in practice

In my first use of this method, I followed a program of running/walking five days per week. On the other two days, I cross trained with biking, swimming, and kayaking. Except when swimming, I wore a heart rate monitor chest strap synced to my Garmin watch. Throughout each session, I would adjust my pace to keep my heart rate within the rate recommended in the MAF method.

At the time of the original publication of this post, I had recorded and charted data for a 3.5 mile run/walk on paved trails around my home. Results are shown in the chart below for the first 28 days.

chart showing aerobic training for senior triathletes
MAF-180 test results for run/walk on the same 3.5 mile course while maintaining my heart rate in the prescribed range.

As predicted by Dr. Maffetone, the time to complete each mile gradually decreased over the period. Also, the time for each successive mile was longer than the previous, though the times should converge as aerobic fitness increases.

When Should You Consider the Base Period Complete?

Most training programs will recommend a base building period of up to two months. This assumes training within the aerobic heart rate range for 5 to 7 days per week along with adequate rest and proper nutrition.

For a new runner, the authors of Run Less, Run Faster prescribe a “3-month base training” program that combines running and walking. Once this is complete, the runner would begin their training plan.

If you are anything like me, you want something more definitive. Joe Friel in The Triathletes Training Bible describes a numerical approach to determine when the base phase can be considered complete.

Friel’s method uses a ratio of pace (run) or power (bike or run) to heart rate for segments of a fixed run or bike course. When this ratio for the first portion of the session is consistently within 5% of the ratio for the second portion, you have arrived at the end of the Base Phase.

Use the Comments section below to request a copy of the Google Sheet that includes these calculations.

Where Do You Go From Here?

With a proper aerobic endurance fitness base, you can now proceed to higher intensity workouts. These build the anaerobic system and increase performance.

After completing the base phase, gradually increase the intensity of your exercise. This is especially true if you are planning to race. For example, you can add speed drills into your swimming, biking, and running sessions.

However, even then, the consensus among trainers is to maintain an 80:20 ratio of aerobic (moderate intensity) to anaerobic (high intensity) training. And, also heed the rule of thumb of not increasing the intensity or duration of a session by more than 10% per week to avoid injury.

What Is Your Experience and Approach To Building Aerobic Fitness?

Share your thoughts and questions about aerobic training in the Comments section below.

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Triathlon in the Year of COVID-19

by Terry VanderWert 0 Comments
Triathlon in the Year of COVID-19

We will remember 2020 in triathlon, as in every corner of life, as the year of COVID-19. By now, we should have enjoyed family reunions, community parades, and the Tokyo Olympics. Furthermore, I should have completed three sprint triathlons in three states.

Instead, over the past weekend I competed in my first triathlon of the season, the Arkansas triathlon in my Triathlon Across the USA quest. It was also the first triathlon of the season for most, if not all, of those with me at this event.

The race had much of the same feel as other sprint triathlons. However, many adjustments had been made by the race organizer, All Sports Productions, through discussions with USA Triathlon, the Arkansas Department of Health, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers who manage the area containing the triathlon course.

In the rest of this post, I will share some of the changes forced upon this and other live, in-person triathlons and other multisport events by COVID-19.

Small Differences in Packet Pickup; Some Even Welcome

Not surprising, we were required to wear a mask during packet pickup, at least when unable to maintain spacing of 6 feet or more.

Masked triathletes waiting in line to pickup their race packets on the afternoon before the race.

Health questionnaire

We were also required to submit a completed USA Triathlon health declaration. This declaration (see the picture below) indicated any COVID-19 symptoms we were currently experiencing. It also documented contact we had had with those who had symptons.

covid-19 portion of USA Triathlon Medical COVID-19 questionnaire
Self-declaration portion of the USA Triathlon “Athlete Medical COVID-19 Questionnaire”.

Leave bikes in the transition area overnight

To minimize contact between triathletes on race morning, organizers provided the option of leaving our bikes racked in transition over night. Of course, the area was secured and monitored the entire time.

For me, leaving the bike in the transition area was welcomed. It meant I did not have to get up before daylight and be at the race site when the transition area opened in order to get a preferred spot on the bike rack.

Race Morning – Before the Start

This was the first triathlon I attended without my wife, Joy. In their pre-race email, race organizers wrote:

  • Spectators are encouraged to stay home to assist in meeting guidelines for safe events.
  • Any spectators in attendance will be required to wear masks and will have limited event access.

Joy was more than willing to ‘take one for the team’. She was able to sleep in, getting some much wanted rest. Furthermore, she did not have to wear a mask, an onerous requirement for her given the temperature and humidity. She did, however, tour the gorgeous race venue during and after packet pickup, mostly from within our air conditioned van.

Self body marking

In most triathlons, even those for which the stick-on race numbers (tattoos) are used, volunteers will mark our age on one of our calves using a felt tip marker. To minimize human contact, each athlete was instructed on the location of each body mark.

While the race organizer provided race number tattoos, I goofed up when applying one of them. As a result, I marked my race number on my right shoulder and left hand. I also marked my age on my right calf, even though I later found the age tattoo.

Masks, of course

Racers were handed a white disposable mask upon entering the transition area. Like most racers, I wore this mask until just before beginning the swim leg. When within a few yards of the water, I removed the mask and tossed it into a garbage can.

Swim, Bike, Run Against COVID

There were few significant changes to the most important part of the event – the race.

Time trial start

In past years, the DeGray Lake Triathlon involved a mass, in-water start. To reduce contact between racers, organizers decided to use a ‘time trial’ start.

With a time trial start, often used when the triathlon involves a pool swim, a racer begins every few seconds, typically from 5 to 30 seconds. Today, a swimmer began about every 5 seconds.

The time trial start leads to less interaction between racers not only during the swim but throughout the race. At one point, I heard the race director announce that, from what he observed, they may use a time trial start for all future races, even after the current crisis caused by the virus has passed.

Aid stations

The run included two aid stations at which volunteers (one per station) served water or sports drink. On this day, there were fewer people handing out drinks. Those who did had gloved hands.

After Crossing the Finish Line

After finishing the course, there were a few more differences from previous races. However, most were not significant.

Replacing some volunteers

In previous triathlons, a volunteer will remove the timing chip from the racers ankle once they have crossed the finish line. Today, we removed the timing chip ourselves and handed it to a gloved volunteer.

Also, instead of a volunteer placing the finisher medal around our neck, we collected our medal from a table.

Good food and drink even with COVID-19

Post race food, a hot dog and fruit, was provided in to-go style containers. Beverages were presented by gloved hands.

Wear a mask. Really?

Even after the race and food, we were encouraged to wear a face mask and follow social distancing protocols. The latter was possible, but with the way I was sweating after the race, there was no way I was going to wear a face mask and breathe. One had to give; you can guess which one did.

No awards ceremony

Again, to minimize contact between participants, awards were given individually by a staff member. I did not miss seeing the awards ceremony. However, if I knew more people who were racing, I may have wished it were still held.

Leave Your Questions and Comments Below

Tell us about your experience in a recent triathlon. What changes did you find?

If you haven’t raced this year, are there questions or concerns you have?

#JustKeepMovingForward 

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Triathlon Across the USA: State #15 – Maryland

Triathlon Across the USA: State #15 – Maryland

Flintstone, Maryland; June 1, 2013—Rocky Gap Triathlon

Our Maryland triathlon took us to the northwest corner of Maryland, about two miles south of the border with Pennsylvania. We had been to the urban areas of eastern Maryland before. However, this part of Maryland, in which rugged tree-covered mountains seemed to wrap their arms around us, was like another state.

Traveling to the Maryland Triathlon

We left our house in Chicopee, Massachusetts on Friday morning heading in a southwesterly direction. The roughly 450-mile drive took us through Connecticut, past New York City, and through the Pennsylvania towns of Allentown, Harrisburg, and Hershey.

Before driving into Cumberland, Maryland, we stopped at Rocky Gap State Park in Western Maryland’s Allegany County. During this quick visit I checked out portions of the swim, bike, and run courses.

We then headed to the Cumberland YMCA to pickup the race packet. While managed by Tri Columbia, this triathlon doubled as a fundraiser for the Cumberland YMCA.

After dinner at Henny’s Bar & Grill near our hotel, we turned in for the night, ready for a pre-dawn departure to compete in the Maryland triathlon.

26th Annual Rocky Gap Triathlon

The sun shone brightly as participants of the sprint and International distance triathlons gathered at the park.

Distances for the individual legs of this USAT-sanctioned sprint triathlon were slightly shorter than normal:

  • Swim: 0.25 mile (400 m)
  • Bike: 8 mile (12.9 km)
  • Run: 2.5 mile (4 km)

Swim

The swim portion of the race took place in 243-acre Lake Habeeb. The lake lies in the shadow of Evitt’s Mountain, named for one of the first European settlers in Allegany County.

The water temperature was around 72° F, making the race ‘wetsuit legal’. Swimmers started in four waves (groups), with the sprint men being in the first wave.

The sprint course was triangular shaped. From the beach, we swam diagonally toward an orange buoy. After turning at this buoy, we returned to shore, swimming perpendicular to the beach.

Rocky Gap State Park
Rocky Gap State Park in western Maryland. Lake Habeeb was the location for the open water swim portion of the Rocky Gap Sprint Triathlon.

Bike

The bike course left the park through a quick ride up a short, gradual hill that exits the park. At the first intersection, the course turned left and followed the rolling Pleasant Valley Road with a gradual rise of 150 feet (45 meters) over the 4-mile distance to the halfway mark of the course.

At the half-way point, we turned around to return to the transition area with the ride in this direction being mostly downhill.

Run

The 2.5-mile, out-and-back run course began by passing the Rocky Gap Casino Resort on Old Hancock Road Northeast. At a little over a halfway into the ‘out’ portion of the run, we turned right onto Lakeside Loop Trail/Gorge Road Northeast heading toward Rocky Gap Dam.

Reaching the dam meant that we had nearly reached the turnaround point, which was a little over halfway across the dam. From here, it was back to the Finish Line along the same route. The only difference was that during the last few hundred yards (meters), we sprinted on a grassy path.

During the last mile, it surprised me to watch as a man with a 70-something number written on his right calf passed me.  (For those of you who have taken part in a few triathlons, chances are that in at least one of those, you will have had your age marked on one of your calves.)

Learning From the More Experienced, No Matter Their Age

I am not comfortable striking up a conversation with a stranger. However, I have found it easier to start a discussion with a fellow triathlete. The shared interest in the sport and our mutual desire to see others succeed at it, especially at the amateur level, is clear.

During the cool-down after the race, I met the 70-something man who had passed me on the run, James Chapman.  Being both impressed by his overall ability and curious to learn how to improve my running ability, I struck up a conversation with Jim about his training program. More specifically, I asked him how I should train to run faster.

During the conversation, Jim also shared information about his fueling approach. I recorded his comments about fueling in What I Learned About Race Fueling at the Rocky Gap Triathlon.

Triathlon run training for faster seniors

Jim summarized his run training program as follows:

  • Start with a couple of months of 3 to 5 mile easy runs three times per week. This will build a base level of fitness.
  • After the initial phase, introduce hill repeats. Hill repeats are done after a 20-minute warm-up run. Start with 3-5 repeats of 10-20 seconds running up a moderately (5-10% grade) steep hill during one of the weekly runs. Over several weeks, gradually (to avoid injury) increase the duration to 1 minute. End the session with an easy one mile cool down run.
    • NOTE: Hill repeats is an excellent candidate for a treadmill since you can precisely control the grade and pace.
  • A third key to faster running is intervals. Jim’s coach had him “doing 30 second to 3 minute pickups where you gradually run at race pace (not as fast as you can go – that leads to injury).” Jim said “My favorite interval session is a one mile repeat where I run one mile at race pace and then either jog or walk for 2 minutes and then do two more repeats. After the last repeat, run an easy one mile to cool down.”

For Jim, there are two other components of an effective run training program:

Stretching: For Jim, it is critical to stretch the Achilles tendon and calves after every workout, including after swimming. I can echo the importance of stretching after every workout, whether swim, bike, or run.

Related post: Optimal Stretching Pre and Post Workout

Strength training: Jim’s major exercises for strengthening the legs and hips are (1) step ups, (2) body squats, and (3) one leg squats.

Related post: Review of Mark Allen’s Strength Training for Triathletes

After the Maryland Triathlon

Since I was racing the next day in the Independence Triathlon in Pennsylvania, Joy and I started our northeasterly journey toward Quakertown – after a shower and change of clothes, that is.

Race Firsts

  • First triathlon during which a portion of the run course was on a dam.

Have You Done a Triathlon in Maryland?

Tell us about the race or races you have done in Maryland.

What have you learned from other triathletes during or after a race?

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Pros and Cons of Running in the Heat

Pros and Cons of Running in the Heat
After a run in the Minnesota heat and humidity.

When first thinking about this post, I expected to find plenty of support for not running in the heat.

In the past, I had done almost anything to avoid running in hot, humid weather. This included getting up before the crack of dawn to complete my run while it was still reasonably cool. Or, I would go inside for a run on a treadmill or an indoor track.

This made sure I got in the miles. However, I now realize I missed out on the benefits of waiting until later in the day to complete my run.

In this post, I share what I have gleaned about the pros and cons of running in the heat. After reading it, you will understand why I am now more inclined to ignore the temperature when deciding when and where to get outside for a summer run – with my water bottle, of course.

Benefits of Running in the Heat

Science shows that running in the heat can help us prepare for races that take place in hot weather. This is not surprising.

However, what is surprising is that the benefits carryover to those races that take place in cooler weather. Beyond this, running in high temperatures can lead to improved overall fitness even if you are not racing this year.

The key, however, is to be careful when running in the heat. More about that under the ‘Cons’ section.

So, what are the benefits?

Adapt to racing in high temperature

Running in the heat helps the body adapt to the heat, or ‘acclimatize’. This is especially important if you have races that will take place in warmer climates.

In an article titled “Coping with Heat for Summer Training“, the Barbell Logic Team writes “One of the best ways to insulate yourself against heat-related problems is acclimatization, allowing your body’s built-in controls to adapt to higher temperatures.”

“Aerobically fit persons who are heat acclimatized and fully hydrated have less body heat storage and perform optimally during exercise-heat stress.”

Michael N. Sawka, C. Bruce Wenger, Andrew J. Young, and Kent B. Pandolf, (1993), ‘Physiological Responses to Exercise in the Heat’ in Marriott BM, editor, Nutritional Needs in Hot Environments: Applications for Military Personnel in Field Operations. Washington (DC): Available from National Academies Press (US).

Accelerate overall fitness gains

A second benefit of running in high temperatures is that this training can speed up fitness gains, even more so than training at a higher altitude.

An article in the Journal of Applied Physiology titled Heat acclimation improves exercise performance (Lorenzo et al., 2010) reports the major benefits of endurance training in high temperatures as:

  • Increased maximum cardiac output (measured in liters/minute of blood flow) and increased blood plasma volume, both contributing to an increase in VO2max. (VO2max is the maximum rate of oxygen consumption, often referred to as the size of one’s ‘engine’.)
  • Increased lactate threshold in cooler temperatures. (In practical terms, the lactate threshold relates to the pace one can sustain for an extended period. A higher threshold implies a higher speed for swimming, biking, and running.)

These benefits also lead to improved performance in cooler conditions. However, the benefits are finite, lasting for 1 to 2 weeks.

Click here if you want to read the technical details of the study that led to these conclusions.

Cons of Running in the Heat

Running in high temperature must be done carefully. Failing to do so can lead to physical and psychological effects that offset potential fitness gains.

Greater discomfort

Running in high heat can be just plain uncomfortable. With more blood being directed toward cooling our body, less is available for our muscles. Trying to maintain a running pace typical of cooler temperatures can lead to a spike in our heart rate and labored breathing.

Nevertheless, having learned of the important benefits of running in the heat and humidity, I slow down and push through the discomfort more easily.

Risk of heat exhaustion

Without properly hydrating or adjusting your training plan, high temperature can lead to heat exhaustion or muscle cramping.

In “Physiological Responses to Exercise in the Heat“, authors Michael N. Sawka et al. (1993) included among their conclusions:

“Dehydration from sweat loss increases plasma tonicity and decreases blood volume, both of which reduce heat loss and result in elevated core temperature levels during exercise-heat stress.”

More sweat

Sweat is our body’s way of controlling its core temperature. And, my sweat mechanism works very well.

During a run in humid heat, I quickly become a sweaty mess. On some days, this includes sloshing wet shoes. (There is hardly anything more unsettling than to see my wet shoe prints on the otherwise dry running trail.)

The problem with sweaty running gear is that it can rub against the skin, laying the groundwork for painful abrasions.

Tips for Safely Running in Heat and Humidity

The conclusion of an article in Podium Runner is “training in heated conditions, two to three times per week for 20 to 90 minutes, can produce a multitude of beneficial training effects.” The benefits include those listed above.

However, consider the following to gain the most and avoid injury from this training.

Avoid becoming dehydrated

For seniors, it is even more important to be conscious of our hydration. In Six Principles of Triathlon Training for Seniors, I noted that our thirst sensation becomes less sensitive with age. Waiting until we become thirsty can give a false sense of hydration.

First, it is important to begin the run properly hydrated. The most reliable way to ensure you are hydrated is to observe the color of your urine. If adequately hydrated, your urine will be clear to light yellow.

Then, during the run, Motion Works Physical Therapy recommends drinking 6-8 ounces of water or sports drink every 15-20 minutes. 

Finally, be sure to rehydrate after the run. An approach to rehydrating recommended by Motion Works is to weigh yourself before (dry clothing) and after a run (sweaty clothing) without clothing to determine the water lost during the run. Knowing the amount of fluid lost during a run will help determine how much water to drink after the run.

Consider electrolyte supplements . . . carefully

Electrolyte supplements may be beneficial during acclimatization. Hyponatremia, a condition resulting from electrolyte depletion caused by consuming too much water during exercise, can be avoided by consuming low doses of electrolytes (e.g. sodium, potassium, and chloride are the main ones) along with water during exercise.

However, remember that our bodies have built mechanisms to control the proper amounts of electrolytes. It is foolish, even unsafe, to consume too much of these necessary elements.

Supplementing to avoid becoming seriously depleted is a more appropriate strategy. An article by Dr. William Misner, former Director of Research & Development at Hammer Nutrition, titled “The Endurolytes Rationale” concluded that “low dose repletion rate generates electrolyte balance [homeostasis] without interfering with the electrolyte levels delicately monitored by natural endogenous processes”.

Fueling before, during, and after a run in the heat may include sports drinks and low dose electrolyte supplements.

Use the right gear

Using lightweight, light colored (to reflect the sun) wicking fabrics can promote evaporative cooling and reduce irritation from sweat-soaked running gear.

I have found that snug fitting shirts that cling to my body prevent the irritation when wet. Conversely, even loose fitting, wicking fabrics rub against sensitive parts of the body making for a painful post-run experience. Tape also works but can fall off when it becomes wet.

Pay attention to your form

On a recent run, I realized that my running form had worsened as I became tired. I now pay more attention to my posture to maximize the benefit of the run.

Did I Miss Anything?

What is your experience with running in the heat? At what point do you call it too hot to run outside and move indoors?

I know that many of you are more accomplished runners than me, so will appreciate your comments.

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