Should You Choose Your Triathlon Distance Based On Body Type?

Does your body type make you better suited to compete at a particular triathlon distance? Are you better suited for sprint triathlons or for Ironman distance races?

I started wondering about this after finishing a difficult training run recently. This post summarizes what I learned while looking for an answer to this question.

In Search of the Ideal Triathlon Distance

Most of you know there are triathlons in a wide range of distances – from super sprint to full Ironman 140.6. If you want to learn more, check out this post.

Over the past several years writing for, I have spoken with many triathletes age 50 and over. Some have done sprint and Olympic distance races. Many have done Ironman triathlons. Some have even done ultra-endurance events.

I remembered a conversation I had with a man, an Ironman triathlete, after the New Mexico triathlon. While waiting for the awards ceremony after this triathlon, he told me he preferred Ironman triathlons over sprint triathlons. In fact, he disliked sprint triathlons, which was the reason he had not done this race.

Why? Because in a sprint triathlon, he felt pressure to push harder, that is, to literally sprint during the entire race.

Then, I remembered my conversation with Ironman Craig Cross. Craig believed his body was better suited for weightlifting than triathlon. Yet, he was doing Ironman triathlons.

I wondered if my body makeup made me better suited for sprint triathlons than the longer, endurance-based Ironman races. Or was my experience just a result of my training and the time I devoted to it?

Can Somatotyping Link Body Type and Ideal Triathlon Distance?

To answer this question, I turned to the internet.

Here, I learned of another field of sports medicine and research involving the characterization of body type and correlation of body type to performance in various sports.

Interestingly, I found that many fitness trainers use somatotyping to tailor an individual’s training program to achieve a body type best suited for their particular sport.


A few definitions will be helpful in following the information in this post and in your own research should you choose to go further into this topic.

Somatotypes – categories into which individual bodies are categorized according to their shape. A typical somatotype will include a ratio of each of the following three basic body types:

  • Ectotype characterized by a long and lean frame with little body fat and little muscle (think: super model).
  • Mesomorph types have greater than average muscular development and, generally, a medium frame. Those with this type develop muscles easily and have more muscle than fat on their bodies. American football lineman are predominantly of this body type.
  • Endomorph types have a higher percentage of body fat and less muscle mass. Endomorphs are often heavier and have rounder bodies. However, this does not mean they are obese, though they gain weight more easily.

Anthropometry is the systematic study and characterization of human body measurements. As illustrated in this paper, the characterization of body type involves a complex set of measurements and calculations based on these measurements. The output is a score that includes a rating that represents the proportion of each of the three body types – ectomorph, mesomorph, endomorph – in an individual.

Body composition is a measure of the relative amounts of fat, bone, muscle, and water that make up one’s body. It is a more useful indicator of health than weight.

Body Type Affects Sports Performance

Sports medicine research has repeatedly documented that body type affects performance in sports. For example, the body type of elite athletes varies between sports, as shown in this study comparing the body types of elite kayakers, football (soccer) players, and basketball players.

“Several studies have shown that body composition is related to higher performance in endurance sports, especially in sports where athletes must transport their body weight. Thus, for each kg of extra weight in the trunk, aerobic demand increases by 1%, and for each additional kg in the legs, aerobic demand increases by 10%.”

These studies have shown that a body type that reflects less weight based on fat mass leads to higher performance in sports that require endurance. This is especially true for sports that involve a lot of running. Less fat corresponds to higher VO2max values.

A big body type that is ectomorphic or mesomorphic is going to be much better at sprinting as these traits make people much stronger.

Shorter runners with thin body types tend to make better long-distance runners than taller runners as long and large legs make it difficult to lift and propel a body forward. Shorter strides and less weight tend to lead to greater speeds over long distances. 

What Is The Perfect Body Type For Running

What About Body Type and Triathlon Performance?

Results of a study published in the European Journal of Sports Science concluded that body type is a significant factor for male Ironman triathletes while not one for their female counterparts.

This study, based on competitors of Ironman Switzerland, concluded that the ideal somatotype for male Ironman triathletes is 1.7-4.9-2.8 (ectomorph-mesomorph-endomorph). Somatotype (body type) contributed to 28.6% of the variation in Ironman times.

“The endomorphy component was the most substantial predictor. Reductions in endomorphy by one standard deviation as well as an increased ectomorphy value by one standard deviation lead to significant and substantial improvement in Ironman performance (28.1 and 29.8 minutes, respectively).”

Similarily, an article titled “Physical and physiological factors associated with success in the triathlon” reported:

“Elite triathletes are generally tall, of average to light weight and have low levels of body fat, a physique which provides the advantages of large leverage and an optimal power to surface area or weight ratio.”

Other researchers have drawn similar conclusions from studies of body type and triathlon performance. In Changes in Triathletes’ Performance and Body Composition During a Specific Training Period for a Half-Ironman Race, the authors included from their review of prior research, “Body composition is also related to performance in endurance sports, including triathlons. An excess of body weight is especially disadvantageous in the run segment”.

The consensus appears to be that excess body fat correlates to lower VO2max, which leads to lower performance in endurance races, like triathlons.

Performance is Not Just About Body Type

The authors of Kenyan and Ethiopian Distance Runners: What Makes Them so Good? help us see that athletic performance is more than just about genetics. Environmental factors such as diet, the location in which one lives (in this case, altitude), and the culture (active from a young age) influenced the runner’s body type.

The study also highlighted psychological influences within culture that have led to the dominance of this group in distance running.

You Can Change Your Body Type Through Training and Diet

The study involving Ironman Switzerland triathletes mentioned earlier also concluded:

“Athletes not having an ideal somatotype of 1.7-4.9-2.8 could improve their performance by altering their somatotype. Lower rates in endomorphy, as well as higher rates in ectomorphy, resulted in a significant better race performance.”

How does one change their body type? In part, through training and diet.

The National Association of Sports Medicine (NASM), which provides training and certification for personal trainers, nutrition coaches, and many other fitness-related disciplines, provides recommendations for training and diet based on body type.

While your genetics may predispose you to a general body type that works against being an elite triathlete, you can change your body composition and type to improve your performance.

Reducing weight by reducing body fat is the first place to start. Developing upper body muscles for swimming and lower body muscles for the bike and run will lead to further improvement.

Is There An Ideal Triathlon Distance For Your Body Type?

I encourage first-time triathletes to first do a sprint triathlon. If you are like me, you fall in love with this distance and continue with it. However, many others aspire to longer distance triathlons.

Barring physical limitations that prevent you from training for a desired distance, you can go after your goal. It’s a matter of priority, of commitment.

You might not be the highest performing triathlete in your age group. However, neither you nor I can use body type as an excuse for not going after a triathlon goal.

What Triathlon Distance Do You Prefer? Why?

Let us know in the Comments (below) your favorite triathlon or other endurance sport distance and why you prefer it.

Triathlon’s Greatest Challenges for Seniors

During the first four months of 2021, I published a one-question survey on The survey asked about triathlon’s greatest challenges for seniors, both beginner and experienced triathletes.

If you have not already completed the survey, please do so here.

Meanwhile, here is a summary of the responses.

What Are the Greatest Challenges with Triathlon for Senior Triathletes?

The bar chart below summarizes results of the 2021 survey. For readability, I have included the description of each of the challenges below the chart.

One of the challenges included in the survey was ‘Not having the right bike’. Since this category did not receive any responses, I have not shown it in the graph.

Results of a 2021 survey of senior triathletes about their greatest challenges with triathlon.

Legend of triathlon challenges for the bar chart above:

A – Not having a training plan that works for me
B – Injury or illness
C – Concern about the swim
D – No races in my area that fit my schedule
E – Not enough time to train
F – Recovery too long to complete all training
G – Lack of training facilities
H – Other

The Survey Says: “Triathlon’s Greatest Challenges for Seniors”

I reviewed the responses in light of questions and comments from other triathletes age 50 and over during the past five years of writing for the

Here are my takeaways.

#1 – Not having a training plan that works for me

I am not surprised that this challenge is the one most frequently mentioned.

I started intending to write about Joy’s and my adventures in Triathlon Across the USA and stories of other triathletes age 50 and over. Early on, however, I started getting questions about training plans for those in the 50+ age groups.  The common message was ‘other training plans are for younger people’. 

From the conversations I have had with many seniors who do triathlon, sprint to Ironman distances, there is consensus that our needs in training change, in some areas dramatically, around age 50. For example, changes in our musculoskeletal system with age is one reason that weight training becomes even more important.

Would you purchase an age-specific triathlon training plan? Press ‘x’ to Skip..

#2 – Injury or illness

Following is a comment from a Team USA qualifier at the 2016 USAT Age Group National Championship:

“One of the hardest things to learn while training for this sport is knowing when to rest. I was self coached for many years and often found myself going two or more weeks without a day off and then I would collapse. [My coach] has been adamant in making me take more rest days. It is not uncommon for me to take two rest days in a week now.”

Any training plan that does not recognize the unique needs of older athletes, including rest, proper stretching, and appropriate levels of stress, will likely lead to injury.

#3 – Concern about the swim

I am also not surprised that this was ranked as one of triathlon’s greatest challenges for seniors. My perception is that the majority of triathletes come from a running background. They either never learned to swim or have not swam for many years other than to splash around in a backyard pool or lake.

The ‘icing on the cake’ is the contact that often occurs during a triathlon. Anything that causes anxious breathing can also be mentally challenging.

congestion in the water during a triathlon swim
Congestion in the triathlon swim can create anxiety in some triathletes.

#4 – No races in my area that fit my schedule (tie)

In any year, there are not as many triathlons as other endurance events, such as 5k. Nevertheless, most regions have races within driving distance. As we saw, many endurance races, including triathlons, were canceled in 2020.

I will be surprised if this challenge is ranked as high in a survey repeated in 2022 or beyond.

#4 – Not enough time to train (tie)

Time can be a challenge for everyone, especially those who have families and are working full-time. This challenge would likely be ranked higher were it not for the portion of the senior triathlete community who are retired.

#4 – Recovery too long to complete all training (tie)

This challenge relates to training. From my conversation with experienced triathletes, this is not a significant factor because rather than not completing all training, they will simply modify a day’s planning if they have not fully recovered, rather than skip a session.

#7 – Lack of training facilities

Over the past year, fitness centers have been closed in many regions of the world. Triathletes have invented creative ways to continue their training, even if it is at or around their homes.

For example, there are strength training routines based on body weight or homemade weights (e.g. plastic milk jugs filled with water). Tri Swim Coach provides land-based training for the swim using resistance bands. Many triathletes also have trainers for their bikes.

Furthermore, ice skating and cross country skiing are great forms of cross training for biking and running for those who are unable to run outside during the winter.

Let me know in the Comments section below if you are looking for guidance on training without using a fitness center.


I included this checkbox in case I had failed to include one of triathlon’s greatest challenges for seniors. There were some ‘Other’ responses to which respondents added a few words to describe these.

The responses were more or less split between (1) COVID-19 related issues and (2) lack of confidence in their ability to finish a triathlon.

What’s Next?

It is interesting to learn other’s thoughts about triathlon, especially when they are of a similar age. However, knowing them begs the question “So what are you going to do with this information?”.

The survey’s results has motivated me to create even more content that will provide useful information for the community of senior triathletes.

Many of you have dreamed of being part of a group that trains together using a plan customized for the age and training goals (for example, distance of the next triathlon) of those in the group.

Interested in joining a training group? Let me know in the Comments section below.

What Do You Think Are Triathlon’s Greatest Challenges for Seniors?

Let us know using the Comments section below how you interpret the results. Are there any surprises?

Do you have suggestions on how the Senior Triathletes community can be more connected? How about suggestions for training together, virtually if not in person?

How Are Multisport Businesses Coping With COVID-19?

April 14, 2020 – We hear a lot these days about the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on small businesses. Among these businesses are the ones near and dear to our hearts who put on multisport events.

While the triathlon season has not started for most of the northern hemisphere, there is an air of uncertainty. Some races have been canceled for this year. Other early season races have been postponed when it is possible for the organizers to reschedule them.

Having participated in triathlons across the country, I am on the mailing list for many multisport businesses. I thought you might be interested to see how one race organizer is dealing with this uncertainty while working to keep their business afloat during this crisis.

Georgia Multisports Productions

logo for Georgia Multisports Productions, sponsor of the 2020 8-week endurance challenge.

Race Director and Senior Triathlete Jim Rainey sent information about the Georgia Multisports Productions (GMP) 8-week challenge.

Jim wrote in his email:

“We have recently created a Georgia Multisports Strava page to try and help us stay together and motivated so when the pandemic is over, and our lives are back to normal we are ready for what comes next.”

The event began April 1st and will continue through May 30th so you still have time to participate. Running and cycling miles will be tracked through a FREE account for the George Multisports Club on Strava. After joining the running and cycling events, register on runsignup. With the registration, you to receive awards, a t-shirt and discount for a future race.

How Is Your Favorite Race Business Handling the Crisis?

Let us know in the Comments section below what your favorite race company is doing about their early-season races, whether triathlon, 5k, or other.

My Favorite Triathlon Websites

The internet abounds with information about training, preparing, and planning for a triathlon, and most of us these days have great internet from somewhere like spectrum internet in order to access this information with ease. Through my years taking part in the sport, I have come across many websites, among the best websites for triathletes, especially those age 50 and over.

As its title implies, this post includes information about the websites I have found to be the ‘go-to’ sites for my triathlon journey.

Favorite Websites for:

Best Website for Planning Your Next Triathlon is my first choice when searching for triathlons across the USA.

running-in-the-usa-dot-com is the best-website-for-triathletes-looking-for-their-next-triathlon

Running in the USA Multisport Events menu

Why I Started Using It

As soon as Joy and I decided to do triathlons in each of the states of the USA, I started searching the internet for websites that listed various races. I found several sites, some with a regional focus. Over time, I found that I relied more and more on Running in the USA.

Who is Behind the Website? is the product of hard work and commitment of the husband and wife team of Bill and Mary Flaws of Waukesha, Wisconsin. According to the website:

“Mary is an avid runner, and Bill is sane. Mary does the website programming. Bill takes the pictures that are featured on the home page. We work many many many many hours scouring the internet, maintaining the information in the directories. This is our full-time life work. We don’t have other jobs. We barely do much else besides maintain this website. It is our life, and we love it.”

Video Demo of

Key Features

The site can currently be used to search a database of over 41,000 running races such as 5k, 10k, half marathon, and so on and over 2,700 multisport events like triathlons.

  • Search for triathlons by
    • Region
    • State
    • Type of multisport event (e.g. Triathlon, Duathlon, Aquathon)
    • Distance (e.g. Supersprint, Sprint, Olympic, Half Ironman, Ironman)
    • Date (e.g. month, date range)
  • Search for races in adjacent states on consecutive dates

Apparently, there is an important population of those who share an interest in completing races in multiple states. For this group, the site developers included a feature under the Multisport Events tab called ‘Double Stater’.


The “Double Stater” menu is used to search for triathlons held on consecutive days in adjacent states.

Other Sites for Finding Upcoming Triathlons

This review was first published in January 2019.

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Best Website about Sleep and Your Athletic Performance

Whether you are stepping up to the plate at a softball game or waiting for the starting gun at your next triathlon, the quality of the sleep you have had will affect your performance.

And as a triathlete, sleep will have played a critical part in your training. As I have noted in the post titled ‘Rest and Recovery – Why It’s Important for Senior Triathletes, sleep should be a key part of your training plan. is a valuable website for those who are looking for better sleep or have questions about getting the rest needed for proper recovery.

Video Tour of

Pages Highlighted in the Video Tour

Pages of the website highlighted in the video review are:

Please check out and share your comments below.

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Best Website for Swim and Other Triathlon Training Gear

Triathlon is sometimes referred to as a rich man’s sport. This comes in part from the expense of registration fees, even though there are race organizations who are offering reduced fees. But that’s a story for another time.

Another reason that triathlons can be an expensive sport is because of the amount of clothing and equipment one needs purchase for training and racing in three quite different sports. Of course, much of it is unnecessary. As long as people have basic training wear, they should be fine to train and compete in triathlons. People can get some athletic clothing from websites like Imprint, they offer custom t shirts that are ideal for sports. Runners can get their clothing customized with their name or the marathon name, for example. That’s a great way of letting people know that you’re running the marathon. Perhaps seniors should just look for basic training wear, they don’t need to splash out lots of money on unnecessary clothing.

Meet is the first place I go when looking for a new or replacement item for triathlon training or racing. This is also where my wife, kids, and grandkids go for their swim clothing and equipment. This comes from several years of shopping many sites and ending up purchasing items from the Swim Outlet site.

page on the website for triathlon gear, one of the best websites for triathlon

SwimOutlet is a USA Triathlon certified multisport retailer.

While you should shop around, I have consistently found Swim Outlet to offer a full range of products in a range of quality and price points. And, prices are competitive and, many times, the lowest. Plus, they offer a price match.

Following is a quick tour of the SwimOutlet website.

If you prefer, you can watch the video on YouTube.

Video Script

Here we are at website. To help you get started on your journey here, I want to highlight a few areas in which triathletes may be most interested.

First of all, at the ‘Gear’ then ‘Swim Gear’ tab, you can find everything imaginable for swimming no matter if you are a beginner or professional triathlete. With so many products to choose from, Swim Outlet helps shoppers zero-in on the right ones using product-specific filters such a size, brand, color, material, and price.

The site also includes several guides such as the one for sun protection shown here. You can find the link to this and other pages in the post about my favorite triathlon websites (this post for those watching the video on

The ‘Triathlon’ link beneath the ‘Gear by Sport’ area under the ‘Gear’ tab, takes you to pages where you can find triathlon, biking, and running specific items. By the way, Swim Outlet is a USA Triathlon certified multisport retailer.

And if you are a Value shopper looking for the best deals, click on the SALE tab from the Home page. Here you will find good quality at the most competitive prices. For example, if you are looking for low cost jammers for your swim training, check out their grab bags by typing ‘grab’ in the search bar.

Take a stroll through the SwimOutlet site. I think you will enjoy it and be amazed at the wide range of products and their good prices.

Thank you for watching.


Featured SwimOutlet Pages

Pages of the SwimOutlet website highlighted in the video review are:

Disclosure: Please note that is a participant in the affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to As an affiliate, I will receive a small commission for any purchases made at when you use the link in this post.

Sales are common on offers quality products at competitive prices.

Please check out and share your comments below.

This review was first published in May 2019.

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Best Website for Nutrition and Hydration

If you have done a triathlon, there is a good chance you are already familiar with Hammer Nutrition since they sponsor many triathlons and endurance sporting events. In fact, you likely received in your swag-bag a sample of a Hammer Nutrition product – a Hammer Gel, Endurolytes Fizz, or one of their Energy bars.

Hammer Nutrition home page

I was introduced to more of the Hammer Nutrition products and how to use them by Senior Triathlete James Chapman at the Rocky Gap Triathlon in Maryland.

Then, when training for my first half marathon, I exchanged emails with Steve Born. Steve laid out a fueling plan for both my training and the race itself. Without the right fuel, an otherwise enjoyable challenge can become a disaster. I don’t go out on a long bike ride without a few Hammers gels – just in case.

Since I sweat a lot during exercising of every kind, Hammer Endurolytes capsules are also great for maintaining electrolyte levels.

You can take a quick tour of the Hammer Nutrition website by clicking on the frame below.

Video Review of the Hammer Nutrition website

If you prefer, you can watch the video on YouTube

Video Script

I am on the Hammer Nutrition website. You can see its contents by hovering over the four top-level headings – Top Sellers, Fuels & Supplements, And More, and Education.

Hovering over ‘Fuels & Supplements’ shows you the range of products for training and racing and for daily consumption. You can explore these further by clicking on one of the red sub-heads.

The ‘And More’ shows you ‘Gear’, including Clearance items and Electro Stimulation products which I have used and really enjoy. It also includes ‘Clothing’, ‘Coffee’ and ‘Body Care’ products with which I have less experience.

The fourth heading is ‘Education’ which contains a whole host of articles and quick-read advice pieces to help you learn about and fine-tune your fueling and hydration approaches for both training and racing.

As you can see, the site is easy to navigate. I recommend taking at least a few minutes to take a look around it. I am confident you will come away with some new and useful information.

Thank you for watching.


Featured Hammer Nutrition Pages

Pages of the Hammer Nutrition website highlighted in the video are:

If you want to receive a 15% discount on your first order with Hammer Nutrition, enter Customer Number 203519 when prompted.

To be transparent, that Customer Number is assigned to me. I will also receive a credit on my next order under the Hammer Nutrition Referral Program. If you like, you can also participate in this program once you have become a customer.

Please check out Hammer Nutrition and share your comments below.

This review was first published in July 2019.

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Coming Soon: Favorite Websites for

  • Triathlon Training
    • Swim
    • Bike
    • Run
  • Racing Advice

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